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AdvertisementWhy did Imperial Japan fail to prepare for the threat of submarine warfare, and what lessons can we take for how military organizations learn in the future?

While the Royal Navy adapted to anti-commerce submarine attacks and the British war effort survived, Japan was effectively strangled by a U.S. submarine campaign.

Even in World War I, the Royal Navy appreciated the threat of the submarine and dedicated considerable resources to ASW force protection, if not commerce protection.

In World War II the RN did somewhat less well, losing two battleships and three fleet carriers to submarine attack.

It’s also helpful for examining how navies that organize themselves on self-consciously “Mahanian” lines approach the problem of anti-submarine warfare.

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