“How the Chinese Women Are Infusing a Poison into the Anglo-Saxon Blood” read a headline in a November 1878 edition of the Medico-Literary Journal of San Francisco.
Toland was the founder of the medical school that ultimately became the prestigious University of California, San Francisco.
By 1882, Congress had passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned Chinese laborers from traveling to the United States.
And while the numbers of Chinese immigrants entering the United States plummeted thanks to the law, anti-Chinese racism continued.
Politicians mostly focused on blocking Chinese people from entering San Francisco.