By the end of the war, labor federations like France’s Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) and Italy’s Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro (CGIL) were led or heavily influenced by Communists.
Lovestone made his way into the labor movement in the 1930s through the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union.
In 1949, the Agency agreed to finance the FTUC’s efforts to subvert Communist unions abroad in exchange for intelligence on foreign labor organizations.
A handful of independent unions, union locals, and mid-ranking labor officials had already expressed skepticism about the war, if not outright opposition.
With Kirkland serving on NED’s board of directors, AIFLD and the AFL-CIO’s other foreign institutes became core grant recipients.